In the history of Islam, many wars have been occurred among the Muslim, but except for Khawarij and Takfiri movements in recent centuries, just a few sects have excommunicated other Muslims and by resort to it, have considered the blood, properties and wives of the believers of Mohammed`s Kiblah as Mubah (i.e. they are allowed to take them). Khawarij were the pioneers of Takfir, but in the recent three centuries, Wahhabists have followed their way (Takfir) more severely.
Under the pretext of invitation to Tawhid, they have slaughtered many of the Muslims, and destroyed many Islamic buildings and works which had holiness and civilized Identity.
Although the great scholars (Ulema) of Islam have made many efforts to confront the Takfir, unfortunately, at the present age we see the development and spread of Takfiri movements around the Islamic world. These groups commit unprecedented crimes not ever seen in the history of Islam. Beheading, burning, mutilation, assault on women, destruction of properties and holy sites are just some examples of the crimes committed by them in the name of Islam.
On the other hand, assassination of great scholars of Islam, destruction of the holy and identity-making places, committing heinous and prohibited acts in the name of Islam such as Jihad Al-Nikah (sexual Jihad) and etc has struck irreversible blows against the body of the Islams world.
By looking at the geography of Islamic countries, we see that the footstep of these groups is more or less seen in all Islamic regions. The groups such as : al-Nusra Front , Daesh, Al-Qaeda, Jund Al-Adl , and Hizb ut-Tahrir in Asia ; and some groups like Boko Haram, al-Shabaab , Ansar al-Sunna and Ansar al-shariah in Africa and other various groups , all reflect the existence of crisis in the Islamic world.
What are the causes for creation of such situation? This question requires extensive discussions which are addressed in detail, in these papers but in brief, the role of the West in the plot of Islamophobia and subsequently, anti-Islam can never be ignored. Nowadays, the West faced by the rapid expansion of Islam throughout the world, has embarked on the project of Islam against Islam. By supporting the extremist groups and sparking the religious disputes, it tries to weaken the power and strength of the Muslim and on the other hand, to show an ugly image of the Muslim to the world.
Also by distorted readings of the concepts such as Tawhid and Shirk, the faith and kufr, heresy and the like, the West has thrown the Muslim into the vortex of Takfir.
However, it seems that the crimes and destructions of the Takfiri movements are so extensive and forthright that they have engendered a wave of hatred and opposition to their performance in the Islamic world.
To confront this movement in an intellectual and scientific way, it was necessary that the scholars and thinkers root this matter out and find the ways for exiting from it. Hence, the international congress titled as" Takfiri and extremist movements in the Islamic scholars view" and chaired by Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi (May his sublime presence endure), sought to make use of the scientific capacities of the Islamic world to counter the Takfir as much as possible. For this reason, four scientific committees were established under the following titles:
- Genealogy of Takfiri movements
- Rooting the beliefs of Takfiri movements
- Takfiri movements and politics
- Strategies to exit from this crisis and counter the Takfiri movements
The first committee addresses the genealogy of Takfiri movements. Origin, basis and examples of Takfir in the history of Islam are studied in this committee.
The second committee, roots out the ideological distortions and Takfiri readings of unique Islamic beliefs. In this committee, the ideological basics and principles of these groups and movements, and their perversion from the Islamic thoughts are examined and criticized.
The third committee investigates the political factors for development and spread of Takfiri movements, their dependencies and objectives are investigated.
In the fourth committee, the, sociopolitical, cultural and religious strategies for exiting from Takfir are presented.
The collected papers for this congress are the result of the scholars and thinkers views in the Islamic world on the above mentioned subjects.
Also, for more scientific enrichment of this congress, there have been carried out some independent researches by the scholars in this area which are as follows:
- Takfir from the viewpoint of Islamic scholars: in this research, views of the great scholars of the Islamic sects on negation of Takfir are presented and it has been tried to describe the views of the scholars and authors on prohibition of excommunicating the believers of Mohammed`s Kiblah (Takfir) from the past centuries up to now.
- Destruction of the Islamic shrines in Arabic countries: this research addresses the dark record of Takfiri movements in destructing the holy shrines and civilized places in the Islamic world. In this research, the shrines photo, before and after destruction, are included.
- Fatwas (religious edicts) of Takfiri movements on permission of murdering the Muslims: due to misunderstanding, Takfiri movements sometimes issue some Fatwas which are not consistent with any of the juristic (Fiqhi) principles and they are completely far from the Islamic teachings. This research has collected the takfiris fatwas in this regard.
- Bibliography of Takfir: by reference to the works and books written on the area of Takfir, we see many scientific works on this subject. This research presents a descriptive introduction of the works in the area of Takfir and negation of Takfir.
- Encyclopedia of reviewing the extremist Wahhabism: In Wahhabi thinking, there are some movements which accuse the Muslim of being kafir. Encyclopedia of reviewing the extremist Wahhabism is a collection of Islamic scholars works from the emergence of this movement, which criticizes and reviews these movements ideological principles.
Undoubtedly, the scientific presence of Grand Ayatollah Sobhani (May his sublime presence endure) has enriched the proceedings and the independent researches of international congress on "Takfiri and extremist movements in the Islamic scholars view"; he has also helped the scientific committee of the congress a lot by his enlightening guidelines.
Also we do thank Dr. Farmanian - the Secretary of the Scientific Committee- who has made many efforts in pursuing and ordering the papers. Dear directors of the scientific committees: Ayatollah Qazvini, Ayatollah Mir Ahmadi, Ayatollah Farmanian, and Dr. Amini are thanked, too.
It is hoped that in the light of massive efforts of grand maraji`-e taqlid and Islamic scholars, we see closeness and integration of the Muslim, and eradication of the intrigue of Takfir in the Islamic world.